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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

豆瓣网友“Shiweitian”表示:“为什么电视剧里的奴隶们都穿着白色衣服,看上去和仙女一样?还有,她们跑的比马还快,这合理吗?”

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Theresa May is still facing resistance from within her own party. Vince Cable, the Liberal Democrats’ sage and leader, still thinks Brexit may not really happen.
有理由怀疑纳伦斯-诺埃尔是否能成长为可靠的先发中锋,这些理由包括他的伤病史、场外红灯行为和非常有限的进攻手段。
A record 27,817 civil service jobs are being offered this year by central government departments and subsidiaries.

9.澳大利亚贝拉林半岛
007系列电影主题曲第十名:雪莉·巴赛--《永远的钻石》
“如果我们能找到在两个地方都购物的人,那就非常有价值。你知道他们是谁,他们买什么,他们哪些方面花钱,”哈勃补充说。“你可以给他们更加个人化的体验。”

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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Sohmers所推出的这个产品,可谓将高速运算能力和低能耗集为一体。Sohmers表示:“除了电子工程师外,我认为我还是一位创业者。我相信,我所作的工作,将会对整个世界产生重要的影响。”Sohmers在几年前从高中辍学,加入了Peter Thiel创立的创业加速器20 Under 20 Thiel Fellowship。2011年,在其他同龄人都在准备考大学的时候,Sohmers开始学习编程。他获得了10万美元的种子资金,并且跟随硅谷中一些著名的技术人才进行学习。Sohmers曾在麻省理工学院研究实验室进行工作和学习,研究从增强现实眼镜到激光通信系统的任何东西。也是在那里,他见到了REX的另一位联合创始人Kurt Keville。但是在他正式进入麻省理工学院研究室之前,他的父母似乎并不太支持他放弃学业。
“根据我们去年的调查,仅仅只有0.6%-0.7%的大学生有自主创业的意向。而这个比例在职业院校达2.2%。然而,职业院校的学生创业的目的是为了为自己创造就业岗位,并且大多数人选择了开网店。”
Bank of China posted earnings per share of Rmb0.56, down from Rmb0.61, and a pre-tax dividend per share of Rmb0.175, down from Rmb0.19 last year.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

The top ten billionaires rake in a net worth of approximately 505.4billion dollars.
1. Hundreds of genes spring to life after you die - and they keep functioning for up to four days. Together with an unexplained case in March that recorded brain activity in a corpse up to 10 minutes after death, we're starting to realise that death as we know it still retains some strange signs of life.
The prospect of a major shakeup right before the deadline is usually a recipe for disaster, especially if it leads to immediate roster change.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • The third gunman, Amedy Coulibaly, who stormed a kosher supermarket on Friday,never left for such training, said Valls.
  • 昆明:万盏太阳能LED路灯点亮偏远村寨
  • vt. 补给,供
  • 证监会人士:鼓励通过并购重组支持新经济、新产业发展
  • 北京:簋街周边拟建4处立体停车场
  • 自2007年4月以来,全球最具价值品牌100强的品牌价值增长106%。同期标准普尔500指数(S&P 500)和MSCI明晟全球指数(MSCI world index)分别上涨61%和21%。
    马特·达蒙凭借他在《火星救援》中扮演的被困宇航员一角而荣获喜剧类最佳男主角奖项。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 家居行业设知识产权保护分站, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

深圳推出4宗住宅用地下月1日集中入市

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

北京:行政审批事项网上可办率超90%

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • “我们非常确信成交价会达到预测的最高价。”
    Politics also color perceptions of the weather, the survey found. More than three-quarters of Democrats and six in 10 independents believe that the weather has become more extreme over the last few years, while less than half of Republicans say they have perceived such a shift.
  • 工作经历
    纽约的一家餐馆正在尝试制作市面上最“腐败”的披萨,这种披萨表面覆盖了黄金薄片、鹅肝和松露。
    Prof Cusumano sees all this as evidence that the company is opening up more, including in allowing developers to customise more of its iOS software.
    不过,在这一反弹中也出现了奖金数额的下滑:去年的平均年终奖是12821元人民币(合1861美元),比2015年多了大约2000元人民币,却仍比2014年的平均值少了800元人民币。在奖金缩水的被调查者中,逾四分之一的人将原因归结为公司业绩太差。
    Marco Montanari, the head of passive asset management for Asia-Pacific at Deutsche AM, agrees that fundamental changes to distribution must be made before the Asian ETF market can move to the next level.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 农业农村部:2011年以来农村改革试验区有144项试验成果
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 现在该不该买房? 在这10个城市买房最该谨慎(名单)

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

瑞士、瑞典、英国再次占据榜单前三名。全球创新指数25强经济体中,有15个来自欧洲。
长话短说,1772年圣诞节后,Seppenwolde很快就破产了。这场灾难是当时荷兰报纸的头条新闻。它彻底毁了阿姆斯特丹一批商人和银行家。为了防止出现全面的信贷崩溃,阿姆斯特丹市只能作为最后贷款人暂时介入。这种情形是不是似曾相识?
美国航天局还表示:“新记录比旧记录高出这么多,以前只有1998年出现过一次。”
问:你今年夏天去了美国,感觉怎样?
Make your classes your highest priority.
Others who made the top ten include Amazon's Jeff Bezos at fifth on the list, Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook at sixth, Oracle's Larry Ellison at seventh, Michael Bloomberg at eighth, and tied for ninth are David and Charles Koch.
The report shows double-eleven has become the biggest shopping event for the Chinese e-commerce industry, with Taobao, Tmall and JD.com leading the way.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 在针对已拥有金融业工作经验的学员开设的金融课程的排行榜上,伦敦商学院(London Business School)重新夺回在2011年至2015年占据的冠军宝座,同时英国剑桥大学(University of Cambridge)佳奇管理学院(Judge Business School)跌回第二名。
  • 2013年8月份建材行业运行情况
  • 为了让故事更符合现代读者的口味,新作加入了一些“小花样”,包括吸烟会导致癌症的广告词以及一位跟邦德不相上下的女性。
    vt. 保卫
  • 天津:楼市“春风”吹暖家居建材市场
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • vt. 管理,调整,控制
    BACKSTROM (Fox, Jan. 22) Last year, Fox tried a show about a self-destructive lawyer (“Rake,” starring Greg Kinnear) that was based on an Australian TV series. That didn’t work, but now the network is trying a show about a self-destructive detective (played by Rainn Wilson of “The Office”) that’s based on a series of Swedish novels. The show was created by Hart Hanson, who was responsible for the Fox series “Bones,” but in the pilot Mr. Wilson’s Backstrom looks a lot more House-like than Bones-like.
  • 她也曾应邀参加《吉米秀》(Jimmy Kimmel)和《艾伦秀》(The Ellen Show)。对于一个青春期未到的人来说,有机会上这两个节目还算不错。
    8.Prosthetic Hands That Sense Touch
  • China's innovation indicators show "consistent steady improvement", Gurry said, adding: "And there's no reason to think that that will not continue."
    大隅在自噬作用上的研究成果,为帕金森病、糖尿病等常见疾病的治疗带来了一线希望。
  • document
    fare
    唐纳德·特朗普总统是美国第一位亿万富豪总统,不过,根据上周一公布的《福布斯2017全球富豪榜》,他已经不像过去那么富有了。
  • 骑行背带是专为小宝宝设计的,以减轻家长的负担。
    《海底总动员2》将于2016年6月17日上映。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 海南违规填海项目已双暂停 涉及房产销售宣传暂停 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

广州二手楼市热度攀升 5月过户量或环增两成

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

新房质量“强制险”值得探索

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

取消若干证明事项 大幅精简办理流程 减税降费红包更好拿了

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

广州二手住宅市场胶着状态更趋明显

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 该报道还指出经济更加发达的地区会有更多的网红,北京、上海、广东、江苏和浙江都位列前茅。
  • 他告诉《中国日报》:“中国医生每天要看多少病人?可能超过50个。我们怎么可能有时间和精力做研究或发论文呢?”
  • 财政下沉式城镇化样本:佛山“新市民”养成路

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 9. The Chinese militarywill demand and receive vastly expanded investments in the form of advancedaircraft and ships.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Doing more to unleash the potential of domestic demand
    Fudan University and Peking University, two prestigious comprehensive universities in China, were ranked fourth and sixth on the salary ranking, while the remaining of the top 20 were dominated by finance/economics and science/technology schools.
    Rocco LaDuca, covers crime and courts at the Observer-Dispatch in Utica, New York. He says he became a reporter in part because of fond memories of reading newspapers with his grandmother.
  • 单词affected 联想记忆:

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Other European cities have seen increases in costs, pushing them up the rankings. London rose five points, bringing it into the top 10.
  • 住建部:兜底解决特殊困难群众基本住房安全问题
  • She said: 'Mom is like, "Oh my God, let's go and meet Ariana Grande." I'm like, "Mom, for real?"

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 11月房价呈积极变化 楼市抑泡沫去库存需并进
  • Household substance abuse
  • 市管公积金月缴上限涨548元
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

江苏楼市开局如何?过半专家判断总体缓和上涨

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 5月全国房贷利率创新高
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 新零售体验:门窗行业线上线下融合模式是趋势
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

In a working paper published on Tuesday, Robin Koepke, economist at the Institute of International Finance, an industry group, argues that investors, EM policymakers and the Fed itself have neglected the role of US interest rates in provoking currency, banking and debt crises in the emerging world.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

[i'fektiv]
The Caixin-Markit manufacturing purchasing managers’ index dipped to 50.8 in November, down from 51 in October and coming closer to the 50-point threshold that delineates expansion from contraction. A median forecast from economists polled by Reuters had predicted a fall to 50.9.
A sub-index tracking activity at larger enterprises softened 0.7 points to 53.1, while mid-sized companies fell 1.3 points to 49.9, indicating slight contraction. That for smaller manufacturers fell 0.4 points to 49, indicating worsening contraction.
Criminal gangs have been difficult to catch, however, because illegal meats are often hidden among other produce such as fruit and vegetables, and lorry drivers are often bribed to deny any knowledge of it.
adj. 全国流行的 n. (全国或全世界范围流行的)疾
今年夏季,美国ETF管理的资产规模跨过3万亿美元大关,亚太ETF行业管理的资产仅成功爬上3500亿美元关口。
自该学校的国际管理学硕士(International Master in Management)项目首次被纳入榜单以来,该学校的排名在过去两年上升31个位置。
The new data released yesterday represent the first snapshot of global trade for 2015. But the figures also come amid growing concerns that 2016 is already shaping up to be more fraught with dangers for the global economy than previously expected.
I only want you for New year!我只要你作为我的新年礼物!
Best of luck in the year to come.愿你在未来的一年里,吉星高照。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

广州楼市:中介费再不是3%封顶 实行市场调节价

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 1=不全是
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • The Post
  • 海外购房“热” 你跟风了吗?
  • 在大选结果公布后,罗姆尼竞选阵营暂时没有发表言论。
  • 调控效果显现 上海楼市“金九银十”降温开局
  • control

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 2016年建陶行业猜想:形有所变,势仍向好?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 除此之外,报告还显示,日本和美国依旧是创新的热点,其中化学、半导体、电子零部件和汽车等行业的创新最多。
  • 3. Piggyback Rider

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

发改委:放宽落户不等于放松对房地产的调控

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